Automated image analysis software for assessing banding or orientation of Microstructures in dual phase steel. For Annual Book of ASTM approved in Last previous edition approved in as E – 01(). Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s . ASTM E_ – Designation: E – 01 Standard Practice for Assessing the Degree of Bandin.

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Sampling and Test Specimens 7. Asfm Thiss pra practic cticee cov covers ers pro proced cedure uress to des describ cribee the appear app earanc ancee of ban banded ded str structu uctures res, pro proced cedure uress for cha charac racter terizin izing g the ext extent ent of ban bandin ding, g, and a microindentation hardness procedure for determining the difference in hardness between bands in heat trea tr eated ted sp spec ecim imen ens.

This difference requires pattern recognition techniques which are beyond the scope of this method. If the entire test line lies completely within zstm phase or feature of interest this can occur for parallel counts of a highly banded materialcount N as 12 and P as 0.

As the degree of orientation or banding increases, the anisotropy index increases above one. Precision and Bias This method is applicable only to steels with carbon contents from 0. NOTE 2—Measurements made on the carbides. Because the degree of banding or orientation may vary through the product cross section, the test plane should sample the entire cross section.

ASTM E (Reapproved ) Ferrite Banding Standard – PDF Free Download

If the banded condition appears to vary substantially across the longitudinal section, measurements may be made at specic locations, for example, subsurface, midthickness and center locations, or at a series of locations across the thickness astn assess the positional variability.

For isolated particles in a matrix, the number of feature intersections will equal twice the number of asmt interceptions. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. Tests should be conducted according to the guidelines given in Test Methods E asmt Because the degree of banding or orientation may vary through the product cross section, the test plane should sample the entire cross section.


If a line ends within a particle, patch or grain, count it as one half an interception. P Intersections—Count the number of unlike phase boundaries or constituent boundariesA crossed by the grid lines.

ASTM E 1268 2001(Reapproved 2016) Ferrite Banding Standard

Examination at higher magnication may be required to identify and classify asrm constituents present. The degree of orientation can vary from zero completely random distribution to 1.

For a two-phase structure, count all of the interceptions of the phase of interest, that is, those that are clearly part of the bands and those that are not.

N NL 5 L t 2 operator bias. Calculation of Results Summary e2168 Practice 4. Summary of Practice 4. The grid should be placed without operator bias. If both phases or constituents are banded, with no obvious matrix phase, choose one of the phases constituents for counting. Tangent hits are counted as one half an interception.

Th Thee st ster ereo eolo logi gica call me meth thod odss ma may y als also o be us used ed to ch char aract acter erize ize no nonn-ba band nded ed f1268 micr ostruc ructur tures es with seco second nd pha phase se con constit stituen uents ts ori oriente ented d elo elonga ngated ted in var varyin ying g deg degree reess in the deformation direction. Calculate the number of interceptions per unit length parallel to the deformation axis, N Lin accordance with: Generally, it is best to count the banded phase present in least amount.

The preparation procedure must reveal the microstructure without excessive inuence from preparation-induced deformation or smearing.

Hardenability studies have demonstrated this relationship for fully martensitic microstructures in steels rapidly quenched from the prescribed austenitizing temperatures. It is best if the etchant used does not reveal grain boundaries within a given phase. Determinacion de Inclusiones en El Acero.

The above equation is simple to use with a pocket calculator. Align the specimen so that the deformation direction is horizontal on the projection screen. For a highly banded microstructure, NL’ the bar above the quantity indicates an average value is a measure of the number 6 Not for Resale where: A If possible, etch the specimens so that like phase or constituent boundaries are not revealed, only unlike boundaries.


Atm number and location of such test specimens should be dened by producer-purchaser agreement. However, e128 on the alloy or material being examined, other illumination modes, astmm as polarized light or differential interference contrast illumination, may be used.

For certain materials, etching may not be necessary as the naturally occurring reectivity differences between the constituents may produce adequate contrast. Originally published as E — The equations given in Annex A2 awtm be helpful for such conversions.

However, an experienced operator can distinguish between the two forms of alignment, perhaps aided by the examples in Annex A1. If the section size is too large to permit full cross sectioning, samples should be taken at standard locations, for example, subsurface, mid-radius or quarter-pointand center, or at specic locations based upon producer-purchaser agreements.

For plate or sheet products, a planar oriented that is, polished surface parallel to the surface of the plate or sheet test specimen, at subsurface, mid-thickness, or center locations, may also be prepared and tested depending on the nature of the product application. Tangent hits are counted as one intersection. The magnication must be high enough to permit accurate counting of feature interceptions or phase boundary intersections.

Although stereological measurement methods are used to assess the degree of banding or alignment, the measurements are only made on planes parallel to the deformation direction that is, a longitudinal plane and the three-dimensional characteristics of the banding or alignment are not evaluated. The stereological methods may also be used to characterize non-banded microstructures with second phase constituents oriented elongated in varying degrees in the deformation direction.

The test grid is placed over the image projected onto the digitizing tablet and a cursor is used for counting. Equ Equiva ivalen lentt inc inch-p h-poun ound d val values ues, whe when n listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate. The load is adjusted so that the indent can be kept completely within the bands. The above equation is simple to use with a pocket calculator.

The Knoop indenter is particularly well suited for this work.