The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard (–). L95 Dual mandate In British tropical Africa, 3 The original of this book is in the Cornell Sir F. D. LUGARD g.c.m.g., c.b., d.s.o. HON. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only.

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Only two serious local revolts marred the widespread acceptance and cooperation that Lugard obtained. Under indirect rule, the emir’s allegiance shifted from the caliph to the colonial commissioner. He was present at Lokoja and read the proclamation that established the protectorate on 1 January Throughout his tenure, he sought strenuously to secure the amelioration of the condition of the native people, among other means by the exclusion, wherever possible, of alcoholic liquors, and by the suppression of slave raiding and slavery.

Continuity was vital because Africans trusted foreigners reluctantly. His policy was to support the native states and chieftainships, their laws and their courts, forbidding slave raiding and cruel punishments and mandage control centrally through kugard native rulers. It was in Northern Nigeria, however, that the system had its most profound expression.

Indirect rule as a principle of colonial local government became the standard policy in most of British Africa. The series of intermittent armed clashes that took place up to mid is known as the Karonga Waror sometimes the Arab War. In the southwest among the Yoruba, it encountered some problems and was less successful. Lugard’s chief interest was education and he was largely remembered for his efforts to the founding of the University of Hong Kong in Colonial policies thus reached the people through their own chiefs firsthand, giving the impression of a native rule.


To the end of his life, deeply saddened by the death of his wife inhe worked almost incessantly in his secluded house on a survey of matters affecting the interests of native races lkgard inside and outside the British Empire.

Lugard believed that, at the grassroots, traditional authority would constitute an effective instrument in enforcing colonial policies, administrating justice in local disputes, maintaining law and order, and collecting taxes.

The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard —the mandatee known of the British colonial officers to serve in Africa.

Governor of Hong Kong — Lugard writes in a clear style. The Rulers of British Africa mandae 1st ed. Thank You for Your Contribution!

From the Niger he went, again at some risk to his life, to the semidesert of the Bechuanaland Protectorate for the private British West Charterland Company, which was prospecting for diamonds. Though sometimes mandte or overprolonged, it helped bridge the gap between tribal systems and the new movements toward democracy and unity. Lugardborn January 22,Fort St.

Frederick Lugard

Lugard’s first mission was to determine the feasibility of a route from Mombasa to Machakos that would bypass the Taru Desert. Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 31, from Encyclopedia.

He loathed the educated and sophisticated Africans of the coastal regions.

Decentralization and continuity could only be achieved if cooperation existed duak the administrative chains, especially between the provincial staff and local rulers. It greatly influenced British administration in Africa and beyond.

Retrieved 7 December Although, the Yoruba possessed a centralized political system, it was less autocratic than the Sokoto Caliphate.

He believed that “the typical African Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In Lugard’s lugardd, European imperialism rested on the premise that the resources of Africa, perceived dormant, could be productively marshaled and utilized by the more technologically advanced imperial nations of Europe for the mutual benefits of the colonizer and the colonized.


He reasoned that black Africans were very different from white Europeans, although he did speculate on the admixture of Aryan or Hamitic blood arising from the advent of Islam among the Hausa and Fulani.

In this work, Lugard outlined the reasons and methods that he recommended for the colonisation of Africa by Britain. His tenure of office also was made more difficult by World War Iwith its interruption of communications, its resultant shortages of staff, and the war with the Germans in the Cameroons along his eastern frontier.

Full text of “The dual mandate in British tropical Africa”

Leaving Mombasa in Augusthe led a caravan for five months along an almost untrodden route of miles 1, km to the advanced kingdom of Buganda. Decentralization at all levels of government, with a strong coordinating authority in the center, allowed for greater efficiency.

As governor-general of a unified Nigeria, Lugard hoped that the system would work in the lugxrd provinces. However, the region provided abundant sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. Here he found a complex struggle dkal on among animists, Muslims, Protestants, and Roman Catholics—the latter two groups converted by British and French missionaries who had reached Buganda earlier by a southern route—and the nominal king, or kabaka.

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