Infantile esotropia is a form of ocular motility disorder where there is an inward turning of one or both eyes, commonly referred to as crossed. Resumen. Este ensayo reporta la presencia de Incomitancia Horizontal tanto en su forma pasiva como activa en pacientes con endotropia congénita y que. Characterization and classification of esotropia and its management with botulinum toxin. Article · January Maniobras exploratorias en la endotropia congénita.
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Congenital esotropia has been used synonymously but the condition is rarely present at birth. Accomodative esotropia manifests as eye inturning secondary to the increased work of focusing through significant hypermetropia.
Infantile Esotropia – EyeWiki
The appropriate treatment approach remains a matter of some debate. Concomitant esotropias can arise as an initial problem, in which case they are designated as “primary,” as a consequence of loss or impairment of vision, in which case they are designated as “secondary,” or following overcorrection of an initial endotripia in which case they are described as being “consecutive”. Infantile esotropia is also called congenital esotropia [See figure 1].
Where the degree of hyperopia is large, the child may not be able to produce clear vision no matter how much extra-accommodation is exerted and thus no incentive exists for the over-accommodation and convergence that can give rise to the onset of esotropia. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. The prognosis for each patient with esotropia will depend upon the origin and classification of their condition. The chances of an esotropia developing in a hyperopic child will depend to some degree on the amount of hyperopia present.
Many of these are transient. In certain circumstances, eye muscle surgery may be indicated to correct the problem. The term is from Greek eso meaning “inward” and trope meaning “a turning”. It is not associated with hyperopia, so the exertion of accommodative effort will not significantly affect the angle of deviation.
Esotropia – Wikipedia
What is cross fixation? Worth  theory suggests that there is an irreparable congenital defect in the infant’s visual system and that surgery can be carried out at leisure mostly for cosmetic purposes. It occurs because the brain ignores input from an eye. Intraocular infection is rare following strabismus surgery Patients should be followed closely for amblyopia, even if they achieve good motor alignment.
On the other hand, Chavasse  suggested a primary motor dysfunction, where the associated poor fusion and lack of high-grade stereopsis is probably a sensory adaptation to abnormal visual stimulation during early binocular development caused by the motor misalignment.
Theoretically, the earlier the surgery is performed the better the potential for binocular function. There are surgical and nonsurgical treatments available for exotropia.
Cross fixation often causes the appearance of not looking directly at a target and parents often wonder if vision is reduced. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Evaluation for an underlying disease process should be made when symptoms and signs lead in that direction. This alteration between the left and right eye is mostly spontaneous, but may be voluntary in some cases. Congenital esotropia, or infantile esotropiais a specific sub-type of primary concomitant esotropia.
Many children will gradually learn to control their esotropias, sometimes with the help of orthoptic exercises. The etiology of infantile esotropia remains unknown. Infantile esotropia begins at ocngenita or during the first year of life. Retrieved from ” https: Prematurity, hydrocephalus, seizure disorders, developmental delay, intraventricular hemorrhage and a family history of strabismus are among the risk factors for the development of infantile esotropia.
Unilateral vision may be decreased by the nystagmus but bilateral vision vision with both eyes open is typically not affected. Even though they are exerting a normal amount of accommodative or ‘focusing’ effort, the amount of convergence associated with this effort is excessive, thus giving rise to esotropia.
Are other eye alignment problems associated with infantile esotropia? If one eye is turned more frequently than the other, there is increased risk for the development of amblyopia. Hemianopsia binasal bitemporal homonymous Quadrantanopia.